The wind is the horizontal flow of air masses due to the temperature difference, that is, the spatial difference in air pressure. The wind is the result of solar radiation, i.e. wind energy is a transformed form of solar energy, and its characteristics are greatly influenced by geographic factors.All renewable energy comes from the sun. The Earth’s sun radiates 1015 kWh per square meter. About one to two percent of the energy coming from the sun turns into wind energy.
The best positions for exploitation
There are parts of the Earth where there is a blow of so-called permanent (planetary) winds, and in these areas, the exploitation of wind energy is the most cost-effective. Good positions are the coasts of the ocean and the sea. The seafront stands out as the best position due to wind stability, but the price of the installation and transport of energy hampers such exploitation. When converting the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy (rotation of the generator axis), only the difference between the wind speed at the input and the output is used.
Good sides in the use of wind power are high reliability of operation of the plant, no fuel costs and no pollution of the environment. The bad sides are high construction costs and wind speed variability (it is not possible to guarantee the delivery of energy). Large windmills are often installed in the wind farm and are connected to the power grid through a transformer.
What research from 2015 told us
Wind energy accounts for about three percent of the world’s electricity needs, and 75 percent of European jobs in the sector are concentrated in Germany, Denmark, and Spain. Spain and Denmark produce more than 20 percent of the electricity they consume from wind energy, while Germany accounts for 10 percent. Denmark is the first country in the world to start mass production of wind turbines and almost 40 percent of installed capacity in the world was produced by Danish manufacturers. It is part of Denmark’s long-term plans to completely abandon fossil fuels until 2050.